Reintroducing native plants and animals back into a habitat with the intent to restore natural functions and biodiversity is a process known as rewilding. Rewilding initiatives are growing in popularity in places with degraded or disturbed landscapes whose ecosystems have lost many of their endemic species. These initiatives generally begin by giving land back to nature, which can include getting rid of invasive plants and reintroducing native flowers, grasses, and trees that support native pollinators, grazers, and other wildlife.

Rewilding efforts also emphasize the reintroduction of keystone species, which are species that maintain the abundance and diversity of other living things. For instance, conservationists hope that beaver reintroductions in England and Scotland will eventually restore natural wetlands that support many other native plants and animals and provide important ecological services, such as water filtration and drought resistance, without the need for further human intervention.